Military Logistics

WHAT IS MILITARY LOGISTICS?

It is the science of Planning operations, procurement and improvement of military logistics facilities. Military equipment, manufacturing, training training, design, preparation, maintenance and construction, maintenance and assembly, training and training in preparation; equipment to be acquired; deals with tasks such as restoring health and cuteness.

Logistics, in its most general form, is an important part of our lives. There is hardly an activity that does not make use of logistics in the least. Since one of the basic functions of logistics is to replace the missing or needed goods, logistics can be found wherever and whenever there is a consumption of goods. War is characterized as a very complex process and logistics has been intertwined throughout history. Since military logistics is a broad subject, it has been defined in different ways by different researchers at different times. Jerome G. Peppers has defined logistics as a specialized system that creates and maintains the military-defense capabilities of the armed forces. Keywords such as “create” and “maintain” describe logistics as a process; It is an activity that should not be interrupted. Every interruption or omission in logistics activities affects the capabilities of the armed forces. J.H. According to Skinner, logistics is a major organizational task that includes the planning, preparation, and procurement of supplies to support the armed forces. This task includes the survival of the armed forces, their drill and training in peacetime, their mobilization, crisis-time deployment and war progress, combat capabilities in case of war, and peacekeeping. Affect its sustainable operations in conservation. In addition, military logistics can be defined as a bridge between the economic resources of the state and the military-defense subsystems, where all the measurements needed for the realization of strategic and operational goals are planned and implemented. The art of logistics lies in integrating strategic, operational and tactical plans with the current situation on the battlefield.

The economic infrastructure of a state is an important factor that determines the quality and quantity of its armed forces. Likewise, logistical capability determines the number of forces that can be deployed in battle. In this sense, economic-logistical factors determine the limits of the strategy. The effects of logistics may vary according to specific strategic plans and specific operations.

MILITARY LOGISTICS ACCORDING TO SOME CENTURIES

BETWEEN 5TH CENTURY AND 15TH CENTURIES

Throughout the years, soldiers provided their own supplies by looting, gathering, or purchasing. In general, military commanders supplied their troops with food and supplies; however, it was given in exchange for the soldiers’ salaries, or the soldiers had to pay with their own wages.

In 1294, after Edward I of England announced that he would not support the king’s invasion of France, Edward I, a system in which officials in Wales and Scotland bought food, horses, and wagons from merchants under the rights of the crown at pegged below ordinary market prices. founded. The collected goods were to be transported to military depots on the border of southern Scotland and Scotland, where they could be purchased by the soldiers under his command. This situation persisted through the First Scottish War of Independence in 1296, but the system was not in demand and was not used much after Edward I’s death in 1307.

England II. Edward’s starting the throne and III. ending with Edward’s death; used a system where merchants were asked to meet armies with supplies for soldiers to purchase. However, in this system, merchants, knowing that they had to buy the soldiers’ supplies, saw this as a profit opportunity and pushed prices much higher than usual

16TH CENTURY

While the number of civilians increased from half of the army to one and a half times; freight trains consisted of 1 wagon for every 15 soldiers. However, the state did not supply these huge armies, the majority of which consisted of mercenaries, and the soldiers and commanders had to meet their own needs. If soldiers were permanently stationed in a town or city, or were traveling through well-established military routes, supplies were readily available under the supervision of local authorities. In some cases, the merchants who supplied the armies followed and supplied the armies, but their stocks were very low and they charged exorbitant prices. Or a broker was hired and sent ahead, making all the arrangements for the supply of armies, including accommodation if necessary Armies deployed in an enemy zone were forced to loot the countryside for supplies.

This method was a traditional method that made the enemy pay for the costs of the war. However, due to the increase in the number of armies, reliance on plunder was a big problem, because decisions about where an army would fight or where to move were not made on strategic missions, but on whether an area was sufficient to meet the army’s needs. In sieges, both the besieging army and the besieging army The armies that came to his aid were also greatly affected. A fortress or city whose countryside is devastated cannot stand if a commander does not provide regular supplies.they needed more easily via ships. This method had to be used especially for a vehicle such as a cannon, which at that time required hundreds of horses to be transported and was moving at half the speed of the army.

17TH CENTURY

After Le Tellier’s son Louvois took his father’s position, he continued his father’s reforms. The most important of these was to meet the daily food of the soldiers; It was 2 kilos of bread or sometimes 1 rusk. These food allowances were given on the basis that protein sources such as meat or beans were available; Soldiers still had to pay for such needs out of their own pockets, but prices were often below market or given free at government expense. He also established a permanent military depot system where local governors were appointed to make sure they were full. Some of these warehouses supplied the besieged forts and cities with supplies for months, while the rest were concerned with supplying the French armies on duty.Recognizing the benefits of the best logistics system in Europe with these reforms, the French army still had limitations in its capabilities. Only some of the army’s needs could be met by the warehouses, and the rest had to be plundered. Looting was a necessary method, especially for perishable goods or items that were difficult to store and transport, such as fodder. The handling and transportation of goods was inadequate, lacking in private contractors. The main purpose of this system was to supply a besieging army, and it was successful, but the armies’ freedom of movement was still limited.

18TH CENTURY

In the American War of Independence, all supplies had to cross the Atlantic, and the British were severely constrained, as the Americans prevented the British from buying local. After the war, the British found a solution by building infrastructure and with the experience of running the empire. Until the rations and Transport Boards took over, London was responsible for reorganizing the administration of military food and transport support. After these boards took responsibility, they completed this organization in 1793 94. This infrastructure was built on experience gained from systematizing supplies in remote locations such as Australia, Nova Scotia, Sierra Leone. This new infrastructure allowed Britain to launch major campaigns to the Continent during the French Revolutionary Wars and to develop a global network of colonial garrisons.

DEVELOPMENT OF MILITARY LOGISTICS

The concept of Military Logistics has come to its present form in parallel with the developments in the field of combat. The war in which these developments were seen most clearly was the “Iraq Freedom Operation”. This war is the first war in which modern technology made its debut in the operational field, and it was a war in which the developments in the field of logistics were also tested. General Walter Kros, who was the Operations and Logistics Manager of the US Transportation Command during the First Gulf War in 1990-1991, mentions that the US Army did not have enough information in terms of logistics in this war. As there were disruptions in the shipment of materials, the traceability of the materials could not be fully ensured in this war. However, as a result of the lessons learned from this war, a great progress has been made in the field of Military Logistics in a short time, the progress has been tried in international operations such as Bosnia and Kosovo, and it is still today in Iraq and Afghanistan. is also used. This rapid development in Military Logistics is followed instantly by the civilian sector and good practices are adapted very quickly in line with the needs of the civilian sector.In order to contribute to world peace, the United Nations carries out different operations in many countries in organizations such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and the logistics support of these operations is provided by United Nations Logistics in Brindisi, Italy. It operates from its base. The facilities in Brindisi have been operating since 1994, without paying any rent, as per the agreement with the Italian Government.

MILITARY LOGISTICS IN THE 2ND WORLD WAR

At that time, Japan, which had a population of close to a hundred million, needed raw materials. The main reason for the start of the war was a port. This was followed by the occupation of strategically important points. New transportation strategies emerged. Because the war was intercontinental, transoceanic military landings were at the forefront. The logistics strategies that enabled these landings to be realized were producing solutions at advanced points. Countries were no longer aiming to destroy the soldiers on the battlefield as in the past. Instead, they aimed to seize and destroy the transport vehicles and supply lines that supply the soldiers’ needs that ensure a soldier’s survival, such as food, ammunition, clothing, and medical supplies. This new view would both make wars shorter and provide a great advantage for the attacking parties, but it not only destroyed the soldiers but also caused the loss of millions of civilian lives.

The rapid development in the arms industry due to the advancement of technology revealed the fact that a large army alone would not be enough to win the war, and at the same time, the implementation of a serious logistics process. With 20,000 soldiers going to war with only one rifle in their hands; There is a serious difference between the probability of an army with equipment such as bazookas, grenades, armored personnel carriers, machine guns and only 5,000 soldiers going to war and winning. In other words, logistics; It is a phenomenon of vital importance in terms of the success of a military  operation. The fact behind its increase in popularity is that in today’s globalizing world, any field of logistics such as transportation or storage alone is not sufficient.

SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT MILITARY LOGISTICS

  • How does understanding a country’s ability to generate, transport, maintain and redeploy military strength contribute to understanding its national strength?
  • How does understanding the military’s logistics networks affect the tactical and operational agility and flexibility of maneuver leaders?
  • If the military continues to optimize their deployment capabilities towards a “just in time” concept, will the maneuver leaders be able to rely enough on their resources to boldly approach and destroy the enemy?
  • How will a regionally cohesive Brigade sustain itself?
  • How does logistics affect maneuver leaders flexibility when deployed to support a non combat/semi-combat mission?
  • To what extent should the United States’ military-industrial complex specialize in the production of military supplies with long-term national security allies?
  • How have organizational changes in the last decade of conflict impacted maneuver leaders’ ability to carry, deploy and sustain combat power in a high-intensity or hybrid warfare environment?
  • How can maneuver leaders balance the need to meet All Volunteer Forces’ quality of life expectations and the desire to minimize the logistical footprint in an active theater of operations?

MILITARY LOGISTICS SOLUTIONS

This area can be used by personnel at all logistics and operations levels in the field, not just small groups of experts at the headquarters:

  • Quickly plan and simulate any supply chain anywhere in the world.
  • Drag and drop icons on a digital map to accurately position facilities, vehicles and routes.
  • Easy control of supply chain variables to explore different designs and decisions.
  • Simulations show real-time inventory levels, vehicle usage and operating costs.
  • Supply chain designs that work well in simulations will also work well in the real world

SOME SERVICE AREAS OFFERED BY MILITARY LOGISTICS

  • International Land, Air, Sea Freight and Domestic Freight Services
  • Dangerous Goods Packaging, Marking and Transport Services
  • Ammunition Transportation Services with all kinds of tanks, armored vehicles and other military vehicles
  • Aircraft Spare Parts Management Services
  • Ship and Aircraft Charter Services
  • Operation of Processes for Customs Clearance Services and Defense Industry Products
  • Inventory Management, Open and Closed Stock and Storage Services
  • Special Packaging and Marking
  • Supply and Repair Materials Order Management
  • Quality control
  • Project management
  • Diplomatic Cargo
  • Real Time Freight and Order Tracking

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