What is International Trade and Customs Clearance?

International Trade: It is done by applying some justifications in cases where the countries where the international borders are opened need import and export between each other. International trade has been named as the event in which trade is carried out all over the world. The basis of international trade dates back to ancient times, for example; Like the Silk Road. The Silk Road is a commercial route developing from the East to the West. The Silk Road started with the transportation of “silk”, which is still very valuable since ancient times. “Silk” was carried by caravans from China to Europe. Although the first commercial transportation started with the Silk Road, its economic, social and political importance has increased significantly over the last centuries. In order to realize international trade, countries need production resources and countries’ production resources are limited, no country can produce every resource they want, and therefore they need the resources of foreign countries and have to buy what they cannot produce or can produce less than their needs. Similarly, it has to sell the surplus product it produces. In other words, no country in general is self-sufficient. It has to depend on other countries to import goods that may be unsuitable for it or in insufficient quantities. It exports goods that are in excess and are in high demand. Trading means selling or buying something. International trade, on the other hand, is a little more complicated, because it is made between two or more countries, it is done through the laws, laws and currencies of the countries where the trade is made.

According to Wasserman and Haltman, “International trade consists of transactions between residents of different countries”.

According to Anatol Marad, “International trade is an international trade“.

According to Eugeworth, “International trade means trade between nations”.

Increasing international trade is very important for the continuity of globalization. If there were no international trade, the level of development for each country would be insufficient and they would have to trade only within their own borders. Industrialization, advanced transportation, globalization, multinational companies and outsourcing have a major impact on the international trade system. It increases the level of development and sustainability of the whole world. International trade is not fundamentally different from domestic trade, as the motivations and behavior of the parties involved in a trade do not fundamentally change regardless of whether the trade crosses the border. The biggest difference is that international trade typically costs more than domestic trade. There are also transportation costs, tariffs, time costs due to border delays, and also language, legal system or culture costs, both taking into account currency changes. International trade; It is divided into two as “export trade” and “import trade”.

Import Trade: It is the purchase of a good or service produced in one country by another country. Importing also means exporting for the country that is selling goods or services at the same time.

Export Trade: Export or export is the sale of a good or service to foreign countries in exchange for foreign currency in case the country’s own product is in excess or the other country cannot produce it or cannot produce enough. It is usually carried out by a country or company. Together with imports, it creates a country’s foreign trade balance. The competitiveness of a good in the international market is also directly related to the exchange rate.

International Agreement

International trade is a form of trade that is mandatory for countries to grow regularly and reach a sufficient level of prosperity. In addition, international trade includes a useful situation not only for meeting the goods or services of the countries in production, but also for ensuring agreement and harmony between countries in political terms.

Foreign Exchange Legislation: All of the legal texts that regulate the procedures and principles regarding the circulation of money and other securities, mines and stones in the domestic market and exporting or importing from one country to another are called Foreign Exchange Legislation.

FOB (Free On Board): It means that the delivery obligation of the seller is fulfilled by transferring the goods to the ship board at the specified loading port.

CIF (Cost, Insurance, Freight): It means that the seller has the obligation to provide marine insurance against the risk of loss and damage to the goods during transport, as well as the cost and freight.

CFR (Cost And Freight): It means that the seller pays the costs and freight necessary for the transportation of the goods subject to the transaction to the designated destination.

For this reason, they are foreign currencies that can be freely converted into the

For this reason, they are foreign currencies that can be freely converted into the currency of another country.

Foreign Currency Purchase Document (DAB): It is the document that is drawn up when buying export prices and bank commissions requested by the exporter’s bank.

Foreign Exchange Sales Certificate (DSB): Import fees paid abroad, commissions of the intermediary broker, commissions demanded by the correspondent branches of the domestic bank abroad, etc. Convertible Currencies issued for: This document, which is accepted by all countries in the international money markets, is called.


Products such as goods and vehicles located in the Customs Territory of the Republic of Turkey or to be shipped from here to another region are subject to certain formalities as per the customs rules. In particular, the processes in which products in the group defined as goods are subjected are called “customs clearance”. In foreign trade activities with a foreign country, it is the service of conducting relations and transactions with the state during the transit of products or services over bonded areas. In fact, it is possible to say that every state without exception has its own independent customs zones. In these customs zones, both import and export goods, goods and services entry and exit transactions are controlled. This practice is carried out by all states in accordance with international laws and rules. In this way, states fulfill their responsibilities to each other. As it is known, all products are exchanged as a result of the rules that states comply with. In other words, imported or exported products are accepted or rejected according to various rules. The completion of customs clearance of imported goods is called “import customs clearance”. Customs clearance is a very important concept, especially in cargo transportation and international transportation. This process is mainly; It is carried out to ensure that goods under customs supervision are approved in accordance with the Customs Law. Goods with customs approval become suitable for consumption or use in that customs region. Activities such as placing the goods in the free zone, destroying, re-exporting, leaving the customs or subjecting them to a customs regime are the details covered by the customs clearance process. Each of these has different formality processing requir.


Customs Regimes


  • Completion of the production of the goods, packaging and making them suitable for shipping,
  • Providing transportation organization,
  • Loading the containers and transporting the goods to the loading port,
  • Preparation of all necessary documents in accordance with the customs legislation of the exporting country,
  • Filling the customs declaration for shipment,
  • Inspection of the goods before the customs office of the exporting country
  • The goods leave the customs territory of the exporting country and the transactions are concluded with the export customs declaration.


It is not possible to give a clear time on how long the customs clearance procedures will take. This period varies according to the intensity of the customs procedures, the nature of the goods or products to be sent, as well as various factors. However, when it is said how long the customs clearance process takes, it is usually stated a period of 10 days. But this situation differs in the case of imports and exports.

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